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Ajmod (Apium graveolens)

Latin Name Apium graveolens, Apium leptophyllum
Sanskrit Name Ajmodaa, Ajmoda, Ajmodikaa, Dipyaka
English Name Celery
Common Name Karafs, Celery-keerai, Ajmodaa

Ayurvedic Properties and Action1:

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta

Guna

Laghu, Ruksa, Tiksna

Virya

Katu

Vipaka

Usna

Karma

Dipana, Vatakaphaghna, Sulahara, Anulomana, Krimighna, Vedanasamaka

Phytochemistry:

Celery yields an essential oil (3%), major constituent being d-limonene (5-%) and phathalides and beta-selinene; coumarins, furanocoumarins (bergapten); flavonoids (apiin and apigenin).2

Per 100g, the plant contains 253 calories, 7.2g water, 20g protein, 4.4g fat, 55.8g carbohydrate, 11.9g fibre, 12.6g ash, 1784mg calcium, 543mg phosphorus, 48.8mg iron, 451mg magnesium, 208mg sodium, 3,308mg potassium, 3.3mg zinc, 0.42mg thiamine, 0.28mg riboflavin, 2.8mg niacin and 1.5mg vitamin B6.6

Per 100g, the seed contains 305 calories, 7.7g water, 14.5g fat (0.73g saturated, 124mg phytosterol and no cholesterol), 55.2g carbohydrate, 21g fibre, 6.7g ash, 1,516mg calcium, 277mg phosphorus, 16.3mg iron, 256mg magnesium, 20mg sodium, 1,186mg potassium, 5.2mg zinc, 53IU vitamin A, 0.42mg thiamine and 0.28mg riboflavin.6


Pharmacological Actions:

It is anti-inflammatory (used in inflammation of the urinary tract), carminative, nervine, sedative, antiemetic, tranquilizer, anticonvulsant, antifungal and antispasmodic2.


Medicinal Use:

It reduces blood pressure, relieves indigestion, stimulates the uterus and is anti-inflammatory3.

An essential oil obtained from the plant has a calming effect on the central nervous system. Some of its constituents have antispasmodic, sedative and anticonvulsant actions.

It has been shown to be of value in treating high blood pressure.4


Clinical / experimental study:

Alkaloid fraction of seeds showed tranquilizing activity in animals. The phthalides are sedative in mice and exhibit antiepileptic activity in rats and mice.2

Essential oil showed inhibitery activity against P.solanocearum, S. aureus, B. substilis, P. multicida, S. typhy, E. coli, Shigella dysentery and V. choleriae5.

The essential oil responded excellently against C. albicans and also against most of the pathogens1, 5.


Reference:

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Apium Graveolens is one of the ingredients of Ovarin syrup

 

Badi Kaheri Panchang (Solanum indicum)

Latin Name Solanum indicum
Sanskrit Name Sanhika, Brihati, Vrihati, Bhantaki
English Name Poison Berry, Indian Night Shade
Common Name Brihanta, Kshudrabhantaaki, Ubhibharingani, Kateri, Barahantaa

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:3

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta

Guna

Laghu

Virya

Usna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Dipana, Hrdya, Kaphahara, Pacana, Vatahara, Grahi.


Phytochemistry:

The fruits and leaves contain glycoalkaloid, solasonine; the presence of solanine in roots, leaves and fruits has been reported. Diosgenin is also present in leaves, stems and fruits. The total alkaloid content of fruit varies from 0.2 to 1.8% (dry weight basis). It also contains salasonine, diosgenin, beta-sitosterol, lanosterol, solamargine, solasodine and tomatidenol. The seed oil contains carpestrol.1


Pharmacological Actions:

It is carminative, aphrodisiac, astringent, cardiac tonic, resolvent, stimulant & diuretic.1, 2
Medicinal Use: It is used for colic, catarrhal affections and in difficult parturition.1 It is useful in chronic febrile affections, colic with flatulence, worms and dysuria.2


Clinical / experimental study:

An alcoholic extract of fruits is active against Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. The extract of leaves is also active against E. coli.1


Reference:

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Solanum indicum is one of ingredients of Ovarin Syrup

Chakramard (Cassia tora)

Latin Name Cassia Tora
Sanskrit Name Chakramarda, Dadrughna, Edagaja, Meshalochana, Pandmata
English Name Foetid Cassia, Ring worm plant
Common Name Chakunda, Kawario, Tagace, Takara, Tankil, Kunje

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:2

 

Rasa

Katu

Guna

Laghu, Ruksha

Virya

Ushna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Raktaprasadana, Krmighna, Lekhana, Kushthaghna, Vishaghna, Nadibalya, etc.

Phytochemistry:

The leaves contain chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, rhein and emodin. Mature leaves possess purgative properties and are sometimes utilized to adulterate the true senna; also used as an antiperiodic and anthelmintic. The leaf extract exhibited antifungal activity against the ringworm fungus Microsporon nanum. Seeds contain anthraquinone glycosides, naptho-pyrone glycosides, cassiaside and rubrofusarin-6-beta-gentiobioside1.
Pharmacological Actions: It is antiviral, antibacterial, fungicidal2.
It is emollient, antibacterial and antifungal4, 5.

Medicinal Use:

It is useful in eczema and ringworm, cuts, and act like tincture of iodine.1
It is useful in ringworms, pruritus & skin disease.2
It is used externally in the treatment of skin diseases, leucoderma, leprosy, ringworm and itchy skin 4, 5.

Clinical / experimental study:

Thrachrysone, isolated from seeds, showed stronger antioxidant activity than tocopherol and BHA. Leaf extract exhibited antifungal activity against the ringworm fungus Microsporon nanum. Chrysophanic acid-9-anthrone, extracted from the seed, was found to be active against ringworm fungi1.
Powdered seeds and active constituent, chrysophanic acid, were found useful on ringworm in clinical studies.2 Cassia tora was subjected to successive extraction using different solvents and the extracts was subjected to antibacterial evaluation against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. Among the various extracts, aqueous extract was found to be more effective against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli. Staphylococcus aureus was more susceptible to the aqueous extracts among the tested organisms. Staphylococcus aureus is the causative organism for various infections and is known to aggravate skin conditions like psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, erythroderma etc3.

Reference:

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Cassia Tora is one of the ingredients of Dermafex soap

Dhamasa (Fagonia arabica)

Latin Name Fagonia arabia, F. cretica, F. bruguieri
Sanskrit Name Dhanvayasa, Duralabha, Samudranta, Dusparsha, Rodini
English Name Khorasan thorn
Common Name Damahar, Usturgar, Durlabha, Dhamaso, Tulaganari, Shukai

Ayurvedic Properties and Action1:

 

Rasa

Kashaya, Tikta, Madhura, Katu

Guna

Laghu, Snigdha

Virya

Sheeta

Vipaka

Madhura,

Karma

Vranaropana, Raktaprasadaka, Dahaprashamana, Kothaprashamana, Mashtishkabalya, Jwaraghna, etc.


Phytochemistry:

The aerial parts contain several triterpenoid saponins which gave sapogenin, nahagenin, oleanolic acid. Aerial parts also gave diterpenes, fagonone and its derivatives, besides flavonoids1.


Pharmacological Actions:

It is astringent, antiviral, antimicrobial and antiseptic.1
It is astringent, antiseptic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, analgesic and wound healing2.


Medicinal Use:

It is useful in abscesses, scrofulous glands wounds and for dermatosis.1
It is useful in small pox, vertigo, foul and infected ulcers, scabies, scrofula, abcess, wounds and skin disease.2


Clinical / experimental study:

The flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, isolated from the leaves and flowers showed antimicrobial activity. The fruits are rich in ascorbic acid.1

Reference:

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Fagonia arabia is one of the ingredients of Dermafex soap

Elaychi (Elettaria cardamomum)

Latin Name Elettaria Cardamomum
Sanskrit Name Truti, Ela
English Name Cardamom
Common Name Arooplaachi, Chota elaich, Elchi, Elayachi, Sanna Yalakki, Kath, Chittelam

Ayurvedic Properties and Action1:

 

Rasa

Madhura, Katu

Guna

Laghu

Virya

Sita

Vipaka

Madhura

Karma

Anulomana, Dipana, Hrdya, Mutrala, Rocana


Phytochemistry:

The major constituents are, 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpinylacetate, with limonene, alpha-terpineol, sabinene and linalool. The seeds contain palmitic and oleic as dominant fatty acids, besides linoleic and linolenic acids, along with alpha-tocopherol, desmosterol and campesterol.2


Pharmacological Actions:

It is carminative, antiemetic, stomachic, cholagogue, orexigenic, anti-gripe, antiasthmatic, bechic, antispasmodic and antiseptic. 2
It is an aromatic stimulant, carminative, digestive, stomachic, expectorant, antimicrobial, antifungal and flavoring agent.5,6


Medicinal Use

Use in indigestion, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, gastric disorders, stomach pain and flatulence4,6.
Use in digestive disorder, stomachache, constipation, and dysentery. 3
It is used for dyspepsia, flatulence, loss of appetite, colic, bronchitis, asthma and headache2.
Externally it is used for headache.2
Cardamom has been used as a digestive aid, and for the treatment of intestinal gas. The German Commission E approved the internal use of cardamom for the treatment of indigestion9.


Clinical / experimental study:

The extracts of cardamom cause a significant decrease in gastric secretion after 3 h of treatment. The effect of methanol extract is primarily observed as decreased pepsin output2. Volatile components exhibit antimicrobial activity2.

Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. It has ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by asprin, ethanol & pylorous ligature. It significantly inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol and aspirin but not those induced by pylorus ligation. It proved to be active reducing lesions by about 70% in the EtOH-induced ulcer model. In the aspirin-induced gastric ulcer, the best gastroprotective effect was found in to inhibited lesions by nearly 100% at 12.5 mg/kg. In this study, the petroleum ether soluble extract at doses ≥12.5 mg/kg proved to be more active than ranitidine at 50 mg/kg7.

Investigation of the analgesic activity using p-benzoquinone as a chemical stimulus proved that a dose of 233 µl/kg of the oil produced 50% protection against the writhing (stretching syndrome) induced by intraperitoneal administration of a 0.02% solution of p-benzoquinone in mice. In addition the antispasmodic activity was determined on a rabbit intestine preparation using acetylcholine as agonist, the results proving that cardamom oil exerts its antispasmodic action through muscarinic receptor blockage8.

Reference:

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Ful Babuna (Matricariea chemomilla)

Latin Name Matricaria chamomilla, M. Suaveolens, M. recutita
Sanskrit Name Babuna, Babunaj
English Name German Chamomile, Chamomile
Common Name Baabunaa, Babunphul, Babuna

Phytochemistry:

The flowers of German chamomile gave volatile oil up to about 2%, containing alpha-bisabolol up to 50%, azulenes including chamazulene, guiazuline and matricine; flavonoids including apigenin and luteolin and their glycosides, patuletin and quercetin; spiroethers; coumarins; polysaccharides1.

Pharmacological Actions:

It is sedative, analgesic, antiinflammatory and antiseptic1.

Medicinal Use:

Externally used in skin, mucous membrane and ano-genital inflammation and bacterial skin diseases1.

Clinical / experimental study:

Camomile preparations have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of radiation mucositis owing to head and neck radiation and systemic chemotherapy5, 9.

The constituents of chamomile thought to have antimicrobial properties include alpha-bisabolol, luteolin, quercetin, and apigenin. Herniarin may also have antibacterial and antifungal properties in the presence of ultraviolet light. Preliminary in vitro studies on the antimicrobial activity of chamomile have yielded promising results. Chamomile oil, at a concentration of 25 mg/mL, demonstrates antibacterial activity against such gram-positive bacteria as Bacillus subtilis, Stapbylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus salivarius, as well as some fungicidal activity against Candida albicans12-14. Whole plant chamomile extract at 10 mg/mL demonstrates a similar effect, completely inhibiting growth of group B Streptococcus13.

In vitro, chamomile extract inhibits both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, and consequently prostaglandins and leukotrienes15. Other anti-inflammatory effects are thought to occur via the influence of azulenes (chamazulene, prochamazulene, and guaiazulene) on the pituitary and adrenals, increasing cortisone release and reducing histamine release16.


Eczema

Topical applications of chamomile have been shown to be moderately effective in the treatment of eczema2.
Chamomile may also be made into an ointment for topical application in cases of eczema10.
In an open, bilateral comparative clinical trial, 161 patients with eczema on their hands, forearms, and lower legs initially treated with 0.1-percent diflucortolone valerate received one of four treatments: chamomile cream (Kamillosan), 0.25-percent hydrocortisone, 0.75-percent fluocortin butyl ester (a glucocorticoid), or 5.0-percent bufexamac (a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory). After 3-4 weeks, the chamomile cream was found to be as effective as hydrocortisone and demonstrated superior activity to bufexamac and fluocortin butyl ester. Chamomile cream showed more or less equally effective therapeutic results as hydrocortisone for treatment of inflammatory dermatoses. It proved superior to the nonsteroidal, anti-inflammatory agent 5% bufexamac as well as to 0.75% fluocortin butyl ester. For treatment of neurodermatitis, chamomile cream was therapeutically comparable to hydrocortisone and superior to other tested products17.

Of 10 clinical studies on German chamomile extract (8,668 total participants), all but 1 demonstrated positive effects for indications including dermatological, neurological and respiratory conditions. Dermatological studies included a controlled, bilateral, comparative study investigating a chamomile cream against inflammatory dermatosis, and a double-blind (DB) study on use of a chamomile extract to promote wound-healing after dermabrasion18.


Antiinflammatory

In chamomlile extracts, chamazulene has been found responsible for antiinflammatory activity. Matricine and (−)-alpha-bisabolol also show antiinflammatory and analgesic activity. Bisabolol exhibits ulceroprotective effect. Natural (−)-alpha-bisabolol has been shown to be significantly effective in healing burns1.
One double-blind trial for antiinflammatory action found it to be about 60% as effective as 0.25% hydrocortisone cream3.
Apigenin may be an anti-inflammatory constituent19, due to the water-soluble and lipophilic components. The flavones block the arachidonic acid pathway by inhibiting phospholipase A, cyclo-oxygenase, and lipoxygenase pathways. The volatile oil components, chamazulene and a-bisabolol, have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory action by interfering with 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase production20. The azulene components of the volatile oil have anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory actions21.
Azulene may prevent histamine discharge from tissue by activating the pituitary-adrenal system, causing the release of cortisone22; or azulene may prevent allergic seizures caused by histamine release, activating cellular resistance and speeding the process of healing23.
Chamomile extract accelerates wound-healing, reportedly by reducing inflammation and promoting tissue granulation and regeneration on topical application24.


Antipruritic

An ethyl acetate extract and essential oil of chamomile have both shown anti-pruritic activity after a single dose in vivo. Additionally, the antipruritic effects of the antihistamine H1 antagonists, oxatomide and fexofenadine, were significantly increased by the ethyl acetate extract25.


Antimicrobial

According to in vitro studies the essential oil has bactericidal and fungicidal activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Candida albicans in concentrations above 0.05% v/v26. Extracts of chamomile have demonstrated antimicrobial activity against E. coli27. The growth of S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans and group B streptococcus was inhibited by chamomile extract at concentrations of 10 mg/mL28.


Wound healing

The polysaccharides are immunostimulating and activate macrophages and B lymphocytes; play an important role in wound healing1. It is useful in inflammation and irritations of the skin and mucosa (skin cracks, bruises, frostbite and insect bites)4, 5.
A double-blind study of the therapeutic effects of a Camomile extract on reepithelialization and drying of wound weeping after dermabrasion demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in the wound size and drying tendency5, 7.
Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats11.
According to a double-blind trial, external application of a chamomile extract improves wound healing. In the study, chamomile extract significantly decreased weeping and improved wound healing after dermabrasion of tattoos29.
Alpha-bisabolol promotes granulation and tissue regeneration in burns and ulcers, and protects against their formation30.


Pigmentation

Chamomile extract has been found to decrease UV-induced pigmentation as well as the hyperpigmentation found in lentigo senilis (aged or liver spots). Endothelin-1 is a cytokine responsible for stimulating melanocyte function leading to hyperpigmentation. Chamomile has been shown to interrupt the endothelin-1 induced signaling, thereby reducing the ability of melanocytes to proliferate and to synthesise melanin31.


Dermatitis

In the mouse model for croton oil-induced dermatitis, topical application of either the total camomile extract, or the flavonoid fraction only, was very effective in reducing inflammation5, 6.
A study involving experimentally-induced toxic dermatitis found that chamomile ointment (Kamillosan) produced a more soothing effect on human skin than a chamomile ointment base or hydrocortisone ointment 0.1%32. Chamomile cream helped protect against skin radiation damage in breast cancer patients receiving radiation33. Commission E approves the external use of chamomile for inflammation of the skin and mucous membranes, as well as for bacterial skin diseases, including those of the oral cavity and gums8.
Chamomile has also been used in the form of a topical ointment to treat acne, skin infections, burns and wounds34. A chamomile cream was tested against a 0.5% hydrocortisone cream and a placebo cream in patients with medium-degree atopic eczema. After a 2-week treatment, the chamomile cream showed a mild superiority over the 0.5% hydrocortisone and a marginal difference when compared to placebo35.

Reference:

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Smilax China is one of ingredients of Dermafex Cream

Gadab Ghas (Medicago sativa)

Latin Name Medicago sativa
Sanskrit Name Alfalfa, Vilaayatigawuth, Lasunghaas
English Name Alfalfa, Lucerne
Common Name Barsem, Lusan

Phytochemistry:

The herb contains carotinoids (including lutein), triterpene saponins, isoflavonoids coumarins, triterpenes (including sitgmasterol, spinasterol); also cyanogenic glycosides (corresponding to less than 80 mg HCN/ 100 g); pro-vitamins A, B6, B12, D, K, E and P; calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, magnesium, choline, sodium, silicon and essential enzymes. The seeds contain 33.2%protein and 4.4% mineral matter; saponins with the aglycones, soyasapogenol B and E and polymines, diaminopropane and norspermine. Two storage globulins, alfin and medicagin are found in the seeds. The flowers contain flavonoids, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and laricytrin. The fruits contain betaamyrin, alpha- and beta-spinasterol, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, myrsellinol, scopoletin and esculetin. The saponin, medicagenic acid, is found in leaves and roots (leaves 1.49%, roots 2.43% of dry matter) 1.
Alfalfa is a natural rejuvenator & known As a Father of All Foods. It is one of the best sources for protein Fibre vitamin A, C, D, E, K, P & B complex, Thiamine (B1), Riboflavin (B2), Niacin and Minerals calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, magnesium, choline, sodium, silicon and essential digestive enzymes and Amino acids1, 5.

Alfalfa contains vitamin A, E, K, B and D. It also contains phosphorus, iron, potassium, chlorine, sodium, magnesium and many additional trace elements. Alfalfa has eight known enzymes that promote chemical reactions that enable food to be assimilated properly within the body. It has also been reported to raise the basic nitrogen exchange. This, plus its stimulating properties, makes alfalfa a unique tonic2.


Pharmacological Actions:

It is anticholesterolemic1.


Medicinal Use:

It is rich in essential enzymes, minerals and vitamins, a preventive of high blood pressure, diabetes, peptic ulcer, to strengthen the digestive system1. Alfalfa seed extracts prevented hypercholesterolemia, triglyceridaemia and atherogenesis in cholesterol-fed rabbits and cynomologus monkeys1.
The saponins in the extract reduce intestinal absorption of cholesterol in rabbits. Human trials have indicated the use of the herb in menopause1.

It contains 4-Amino-Butyric-Acid, Trimethylamine, Tryptophan, Amylase, Adenine, Adenosine, Guanine, Guanosine, Ribose, Saponin and Tannin. Because of its deep root system, alfalfa is a rich source of the minerals calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, potassium, Manganese and trace minerals. Specifically, it is one of the best sources for protein and is very high in chlorophyll, carotene, Niacin, Choline, Octacosanol, Peroxidase, Protein, Pyridoxine, Riboflavin, Thiamin, Alpha-Tocopherol, Vitamin-E, Vitamin-K, Xanthophylls, Hypoxanthine, Xylose, Zeaxanthin A, vitamin D and several digestive enzymes. This may be why it is said to help reconstitute bone and is beneficial for rickets. Research suggests that it may inactivate dietary chemical carcinogens in the liver and small intestine before they have a chance to do the body any harm. It is used for bladder infections, fatigue or muscle tenderness. It is also used to reduce the pain and inflammation of rheumatism and arthritis. Alfalfa is used as an appetite stimulant, a vitality augmenter (tonic), a digestive stimulant, for insomnia, and to relax the nervous system3.

Because of a long root system which absorbs abundant minerals, alfalfa is very high in minerals and vitamins, particularly iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium, trace minerals and vitamin K. It helps to remove toxins and neutralizes acids. It is good for anemia, menopause, arthritis, gout, stabilizing blood sugar levels, balancing the pituitary gland, and detoxifying the blood and kidneys. Alfalfa helps soothe ulcers, the liver and acts as a heart tonic. It helps with estrogen production and morning sickness. It has in it a natural fluoride and is a mild diuretic. Alfalfa may be used for reducing fevers and rheumatism and has a mild laxative effect. It is good for cystitis or an inflamed bladder and relief from bloating and water retention4.

The leaves are rich in vitamin K which is used medicinally to encourage the clotting of blood. This is valuable in the treatment of jaundice6.

Alfalfa leaves, either fresh or dried, have traditionally been used as a nutritive tonic to stimulate the appetite and promote weight gain11.


Clinical / experimental study:

Alfalfa appears to lower total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, (LDL) and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) while not significantly lowering desirable HDL. This leads to a significant reduction of the total cholesterol/HDL ratios, one of the major predictors of cardiovascular risk. This action appears to be due to the reduced intestinal absorption of both endogenous and exogenous cholesterol7.

Alfalfa leaves contain approximately 2–3% saponins.8 Animal studies suggest that these constituents block absorption of cholesterol and prevent the formation of atherosclerotic plaques.9

One small human trial found that 120 grams per day of heat-treated alfalfa seeds for eight weeks led to a modest reduction in cholesterol.10


Cholesterol reduction

Alfalfa plant saponins and fiber bind significant quantities of cholesterol in vitro; sprout saponins interact to a lesser degree. In vitro bile acid adsorption is greatest for the whole alfalfa plant, and this activity is not reduced by the removal of saponins from the plant material12.

Several studies indicate that the ingestion of alfalfa reduces cholesterol absorption and atherosclerotic plaque formation in animals13-17. In 1 study, the ability of alfalfa to reduce liver cholesterol accumulation in cholesterol-fed rats was enhanced by the removal of saponins. Therefore, alfalfa plant saponins appear to play an important role in neutral steroid excretion, but are not essential for increasing bile acid excretion13. In a study with prairie dogs, the lowest incidence of cholesterol gallstones was obtained with the diet of the higher fiber content (85% alfalfa)17.

Reference:

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Medicago sativa is one of ingredients of Viton'99' capsule

Haldi (Curcuma longa)

Latin Name Curcuma longa, C. domestica
Sanskrit Name Haridraa, Priyaka, Haridruma, Kshanda, Gauri, Kaanchani, Krimighna
English Name Turmeric
Common Name Varavarnini, Yoshitapriyaa, Hattavilaasini, Naktaahvaa, Sharvari, Zard Chob, Manjal

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:2

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta

Guna

Laghu, Ruksha

Virya

Usna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Varnya, Kushthaghna, Raktaprasadana, Kandughna, Pandughna, Raktavardhaka, Rakastambhana, etc,


Phytochemistry:

The rhizomes gave curcuminoids, the mixture known as curcumin, consisting of atleast four phenolic diarylheptanoids, including curcumin and monodesmethoxycurcumin; volatile oil (3–5%), containing about 60% of turmerones which are sesquiterpene ketones, and bitter principles, sugars, starch, resin1.


Pharmacological Actions:

It is anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, appetizer, haematic, hepatoprotective, blood-purifier, antioxidant, detoxifier and regenerator of liver tissue, antiasthmatic, anti-tumour, anticutaneous, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, stomachic and carminative1,2.


Medicinal Use:

It is useful in inflammations, ulcers, wounds, skin diseases, pruritus, allergic conditions and discolouration of skin, anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, constipation, anaemia, haemorrhages, strangury, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, urethrorhoea, fever and general debility.2
With its anti microbial action it resists microorganisms to grow; it has powerful antioxidant, anti-inflammatory properties.3
It is used to remove liver obstructions.4
It purifies blood by destroying the pathogenic organisms. A paste of turmeric is used to cure ringworm, obstinate itching, eczema and other parasitic skin diseases and in chicken pox and small pox.5


Clinical / experimental study:

Curcumin related phenolics possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and hepatoprotective activities. The antioxidant activity of curcumin is comparable to standard antioxidants-vitamin C and E, BHA and BHT.1


Skin conditions

Ischemia and tissue hypoxia in burn injuries or chronic wounds, such as venous leg ulcers, generate free radicals that give rise to further tissue necrosis. An in vitro study demonstrated protective effects of curcumin against hydrogen peroxide in human keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts6.

Oral pretreatment with curcumin 100 mg/kg hastened wound healing in mice exposed to postoperative gamma-radiation. Enhancement of collagen synthesis and markers of wound healing were demonstrated. Histological assessment of wound biopsy specimens showed improved collagen deposition as well as increased fibroblast and vascular densities7.

A combination of turmeric and Neem (Azadirachta indica) applied topically effectively eradicated scabies in 97% of 817 people treated for 3 to 15 days8.

Curcuma longa rhizome extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria. Essential oil was found to be most active and its activity was compared to standard antibiotics gentamycin, ampicillin, doxycycline and erythromycin in these strains. The clinical isolate of S. aureus showed more sensitivity towards essential oil fraction. The use of essential oil from turmeric as a potential antiseptic in prevention and treatment of antibacterial infections has been suggested9.

Turmeric powder has healing effect on both aseptic and septic wounds in rats & rabbits10.

Curcumin, isolated from turmeric, has been known to possess many pharmacologic properties. To further understand its therapeutic mechanisms on wound healing, the antioxidant effects of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase induced damage to cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were investigated. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay and quantification of lactate dehydrogenase release. Exposure of human keratinocytes to curcumin at 10 [mu]g/mL showed significant protective effect against hydrogen peroxide. Interestingly, exposure of human dermal fibroblasts to curcumin at 2.5 [mu]g/mL showed significant protective effects against hydrogen peroxide. The findings indicate that curcumin indeed possessed powerful inhibition against hydrogen peroxide damage in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts11.
The wound-healing, antiinflammatory and antimutagenic activities of turmeric have been demonstrated convincingly12.

Many of the pharmacologic actions of turmeric have been attributed to its antioxidant activity, primarily because of curcumin. In a study of 34 vegetables common in the Indian diet, turmeric had the highest antioxidant activity.13

Topical application of curcumin inhibited chemically induced carcinogenesis on mouse skin.14

Curcuma longa rhizome extracts were evaluated for antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria. Essential oil was found to be most active and its activity was compared to standard antibiotics gentamycin, ampicillin, doxycycline and erythromycin in these strains. The clinical isolate of S. aureus showed more sensitivity towards essential oil fraction. The use of essential oil from turmeric as a potential antiseptic in prevention and treatment of antibacterial infections has been suggested15.
Curcuma longa, Azadirachta indica and Rubia cordifolia shows anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the capacity of P. acnes-induced ROS and pro-inflammatory cytokines, the two important inflammatory mediators in acne pathogenesis16.


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Cyperus Scariosus is one of ingredients of Ban Baby Oil, Calcurosin Tablet, Dermafex Oil, Dermafex Soap, Ovarin Syrup, Suvarna Hair Vitaliser and Sesa Hair Vitaliser for Man

Indrajav (Holarrhena antidysenterica)

Latin Name Holarrhena antidysenterica, H. pubescens
Sanskrit Name Kutaja, Kalinga, Sakra, Vatsaka
English Name Ester tree, Conessi bark
Common Name Kurchi, Kuda, Kadachhal, Kurasukk, Kura, Kutakappala

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:

 

Rasa

Tikta, Kasaya

Guna

Laghu, Ruksha

Virya

Sita

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Dipana, Kaphapittasamaka, Sangrahi


Phytochemistry:

The bark contains the alkaloids, regholarrhenine-A, -B, -C, -D, -E and -F; pubescine, norholadiene, pubescimine, kurchinin, kurchinine, kurchinidine, holarrifine, holadiene, kurchilidine, kurchamide, kurcholessine, kurchessine, conessine, conessimine and isoconessimine, and the steroidal compounds kurchinicin and holadyson2.

It contains aspartic acids, arginine etc 3.


Pharmacological Actions:

It is carminative, antidysenteric, astringent, anthelmintic, digestive, febrifuge, antituberculosis, antigiardiastic, antiamoebicidal, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antidiarrhoeal and antifungal 3, 4.
It has antibacterial activity against the enteric pathogens8.


Medicinal Use:

It is useful in indigestion, flatulence, colic, amoebic dysentery, diarrhoea, hepatic and gastric disorder, Hepatosplenomegaly and worm infestation 3,4.
It is a well known drug for amoebic dysentery and other gastric disorders 5.


Clinical / experimental study:

The alkaloid conessine is used as a therapeutic drug for the treatment of dysentery and helminthic disorders. Conessine and conimine inhibited the growth of Shigella sonnei, S. flexneri and Salmonella enteritidis strains. In chronic amoebiasis, Bi-iodide compound of total alkaloids, given orally, compare favourably with emetine Bi-iodide2.

Clinical tests with connessine on patients with intestinal and hepatic amoebiasis have been found to give good results6.

Conessine from the bark killed free living amoebae and also kills entamoeba histolytica in the dysenteric stools of experimentally infected kittens. It is markedly lethal to the flagellate protozoon. It is antitubercular also7.

Indrajav (Holarrhena antidysenterica) has inhibitory action against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium, S. enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, S. boydil, Pseudomonas aeruginosa9.


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Holarrhena antidysenterica is one of the ingredients of Colicarmin Drops , Livex Drops and Gastrex Tablet

Jaitoon Oil (Olea europoea)

Latin Name Olea Europoea
Sanskrit Name -
English Name Olive
Common Name Olive, Zaitoon, Jaitoon

Phytochemistry:

Leaves of Olea europaea gave iridoid monoterpenes including oleuropein and oleuroside; triterpenes including oleanolic and maslinic acids; flavonoids including luteolin and apiginine derivatives. The oil contains glycerides of oleic acid about 70–80%, with smaller amounts of linoleic, palmitic and stearic acid glycerides4.
Olive oil contains high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (chiefly oleic acid) and is also a source of at least 30 phenolic compounds including oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol and also flavonoids, squalene, beta-carotene, and alpha-tocopherol16.
Olive leaf extract also contains a variety of phenolic compounds, most importantly oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, and also rutin, luteolin, catechin and apigenin, and various nutrients such as selenium, chromium, iron, zinc, vitamin C, beta-carotene and a wide range of amino acids17.


Pharmacological Actions:

Externally applied, olive oil acts as a demulcent and emollient3.
It is astringent and demulcent4.
The oil a nourishing demulcent and emollient13-15.


Medicinal Use:

Externally, olive oil has been applied to soothe minor burns and dry skin.1
Externally used for wound dressing and for minor burns, psoriasis and pruritus4.
Oil is applied to prevent hair loss 5, 6.
Fruit is applied externally to fractured limb 7, 6.
Fruit is used externally as a skin cleanser 8, 6.
It is used externally to treat pruritus and the effects of stings or burns13, 14.
It is a good hair tonic and used with oil of rosemary is a good treatment for dandruff13, 14.


Clinical / experimental study:

Olive oil is a good antioxidant and assuredly it’s a good moisturizing ingredient and topically applied olive oil can protect against UVB damage2.
Hydroxytyrosol demonstrated broader antimicrobial activity than oleuropein and is comparable to ampicillin and erythromycin in spectrum and potency 9, 6.
In-vitro and animal experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the antioxidant activity of olive leaf extracts. In rat epithelial cells stimulated with cytokines, a concentrated polyphenols extract reduced nitrite concentration and free radical production 10, 6.
Externally applied, olive oil acts as a demulcent and emollient. It is used to soften the skin in eczema and psoriasis, and in massage, and used to prevent stretch marks; therefore, it is employed in the preparation of soaps, ointments, and liniments. In addition, olive oil has been used to soften ear wax11, 12.


Antioxidant

Numerous olive phenolics have strong free radical scavenging capacity and show a synergistic behaviour when combined, as occurs naturally in the fruit and leaf. According to in vitro tests, the flavonoids, rutin, catechin and luteolin exert antioxidant effects almost 2.5-fold those of vitamin C and E and are comparable to that of lycopene18.


Anti-Inflammatory

Several constituents within olive oil and/or leaf have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, chiefly oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid, luteolin and apigenin19.

Olive oil is an emollient and used externally to relieve pruritis and inflamed surfaces and is used to soften and remove dry scales in eczema and psoriasis20.


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Olea Europoea is one of the ingredients of Suvanra hair vitalise,  Dermafex Oil and Sesa Hair Vitaliser for Man

Kadu (Picrorhiza kurrooa)

Latin Name Picrorhiza kurroa
Sanskrit Name Katuka, Tikta, Katurohini, Rohini, Krishnabheda, Chakrangi
English Name Picrorhiza, Hellebore
Common Name Kutki, Kuru, Kadu, Katukrohini, Katuki, Kutakisafed

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:1

 

Rasa

Tikta

Guna

Laghu, Ruksha

Virya

Sheeta

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Bhedana, Rochana, Deepana, Yakriduttejaka, Pittasaraka, Raktashodhaka, Kushthaghna, etc.


Phytochemistry:

The roots yield a glycosidal bitter principle, kutkin, found to be a mixture of two iridoid glycosides, picroside I and kutkoside. Also obtained were D-mannitol, kutkiol, kutkisterol and a ketone (identicalwith apocynin).2


Pharmacological Actions:

It is stomachic, antidiarrhoeal, cholagogue and hepatoprotective2.
It is bitter, tonic, cooling, laxative, carminative, digestive, anthelmintic, antiinflammatory, depurative, antiviral, hepatoprotective, antibacterial, cholagogue, antioxidant, antimicrobial, immunomodulating and antihepatotoxic1.


Medicinal Use:

It is useful in disease of spleen and liver including anaemia, jaundice, haemorrhoids and general debility1.
It has hepatoprotective action and useful in various liver disorders3.
It is used in hepatitis, chronic dysentery, amoebiasis, jaundice, intermittent fever, dyspnoea and skin diseases2.


Clinical / experimental study:

Kutkin, picroside I and kutkoside exhibit anti-inflammatory property2.
Clinical study on 55 patients suffering from infective hepatitis indicted that the powdered rhizome filled in gelatin capsule 4 gm/day, p.o. in 4 divided doses for six weeks, cured 91% patients, relieved 3.6% patients and no effect on 3.6% cases. Hence, “Kutaki” appeared to be a dependable drug for the treatment of patients of jaundice especially infective hepatitis4.

The alcoholic extract of rhizome of P. kurroa exhibited hydrocholerectic effect on experimental ligation of bile duct in anaesthetised dogs. In a dose of 100mg/kg there was marked increase in urinary output. The extract produced moderate antimicrobial activity against Staph. aureus, S. paratyphi which suggested the potential value of the drug in infective hepatitis and urinary tact infection5.

In a double-blind trial of 33 patients with acute viral hepatitis, use of the herb Picrorhiza kurroa at a dose of 375 mg three times daily significantly speeded recovery time as compared to placebo6.

Picroliv, the hepatoprotective principle of the plant Picrorhiza kurroa, showed a dose-dependent (1.5-12 mg/kg x 7 days) choleretic effect in conscious rats and anaesthetised guinea pigs. It also possessed a marked anticholestatic effect against paracetamol- and ethynylestradiol-induced cholestasis. It antagonised the changes in bile volume as well as the contents (bile salts and bile acids). Silymarin, a known hepatoprotective agent, was tested simultaneously for comparison. Picroliv was found to be a more potent choleretic and anticholestatic agent than silymarin7.

Picroliv, the active constituent of the plant Picrorhiza Kurroa, showed significant hepatoprotective as well as anticholestatic activity against rifampicin-induced hepatic damage. Rifampicin (50 mg/kg ip × 6 days) resulted in the reduction of bile flow as well as its contents (bile salts and bile acids) in the conscious rat and anesthetized guinea pig. Further, it also caused a decrease in the viability and rate of oxygen consumption in isolated rat hepatocytes. Picroliv treatment significantly reversed the altered parameters of bile and hepatocytes. The hepatoprotective drug silymarin on comparison was found to be less active than picroliv8.

Oxidative stress is one of the mechanisms with a central role involved in the pathogenesis of antitubercular drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin)-induced hepatitis. In the present study the antihepatotoxic effect of the ethanol extract of Picrorhiza kurroa rhizomes and roots (PK) on liver mitochondrial antioxidant defense system in antitubercular drugs (isoniazid and rifampicin)-induced hepatitis in rats has been investigated. In liver mitochondria of antitubercular drugs administered rats, a significant elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation with concomitant decline in the level of reduced glutathione and the activities of antioxidant enzymes was observed. Co-administration of PK (50 mg/kg/day for 45 days) significantly prevented these antitubercular drugs-induced alterations and maintained the rats at near normal status. The results of the present investigation indicated that the hepatoprotective effect of the ethanol extract of P. kurroa rhizomes and roots (PK) might be ascribable to its membrane-stabilizing action and/or antioxidant property9.

Picrorhiza kurroa root powder (375 mg) and matching placebo in opaque capsules were administered in a randomised double-blind manner to the patients diagnosed to have acute viral hepatitis, negative for HBsAg by counter immunoelectrophoresis at Haffkine Institute. Three capsules of placebo or Picrorhiza kurroa were given three times a day for two weeks. The placebo group had 18 patients and 15 were on the drug - Picrorhiza kurroa. The placebo and the drug groups were comparable in respect of age, sex, weight, severity and duration of disease. Shows the values of bilirubin, SGPT and SGOT, basically and every week. The difference in values between the placebo and Picrorhiza kurroa groups was statistically significant (p<0.05). The time in days required for the total serum bilirubin to drop to the average value of 2.5 mg % was calculated from extrapolation on a semilog graph. For the placebo, the time in days was 75.9 days as against 27.44 for Picrorhiza kurroa group; the decay constants were 0.0198 and 0.8691 respectively10.

1966, Pandey had done pioneering experimental and clinical work, with Picrorhiza kurroa in liver disorders11.

The published literature and currently on-going work show the efficacy and safety of Picrorhiza kurroa in (1) acute viral hepatitis (2) treatment of drug-induced liver damage e.g. antituberculous drugs and (3) long-term prophylactic use in bronchial asthma11-14.

Picroliv was found to possess Hepatoprotective activity against amoebic liver abscess. Significant recovery obtained in serum enzyme levels in all animal models and against amoebic liver abscess in gerbils on treatment with picroliv indicated that picroliv possesses therapeutic activity against E. histolytica induced hepatic damage15. Picroliv significantly protects against alcohol induced hepatotoxicity16.


Mechanism of action

The hepatoprotective action of Picrorhiza kurroa is attributed to Picrorhiza's ability to inhibit the generation of oxygen anions and to scavenge free radicals 17. Picrorhiza's antioxidant effect has been shown to be similar to that of superoxide dismutase, metal-ion chelators, and xanthine oxidase inhibitors18. In rats infected, with malaria, Picrorhiza restored depleted glutathione levels, thereby enhancing detoxification and antioxidation, and helping maintain a normal oxidation-reduction balance19. In this same animal model, Picrorhiza also demonstrated an anti-lipid peroxidative effect20. Like silymarin, Picrorhiza has been shown to stimulate liver regeneration in rats, possibly via stimulation of nucleic acid and protein synthesis21. Picrorhiza's anti-inflammatory action is attributed to the apocynin constituent, which has been shown to have potent anti-inflammatory properties in addition to inhibiting oxidative burst in neutrophils22.
Animal studies indicate Picrorhiza's constituents exhibit a strong anticholestatic activity against a variety of liver-toxic substances, appearing to be even more potent than silymarin. Picrorhiza also exhibits a dose-dependent choleretic activity, evidenced by an increase in bile salts and acids, and bile flow23.

Picrorhiza extract (picroliv) when given at a dose of 3-12 mg/kg orally for 45 days, was also shown to be effective in reversing ethanol-induced liver damage in rats24.
In an animal model of hepatic ischemia, rats given Picrorhiza orally at 12 mg/kg daily for 7 days, prior to induced ischemia, demonstrated improved hepatocyte glycogen preservation and reduced apoptosis, compared to control animals25.
An in vitro study demonstrated Picrorhiza's antioxidant activity by subjecting human Glioma and Hep 3B cells to a hypoxic state. Picrorhiza treatment reduced the cellular damage cause by hypoxia, indicating Picrorhiza constituents may protect against hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced injuries26.

Studies indicate Picrorhiza extracts may be of therapeutic value in treating viral hepatitis. An in vitro study investigated anti-hepatitis B-like activity of Picrorhiza and found it to have promising anti-hepatitis B surface antigen activity27.
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 33 patients diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis, 375 mg Picrorhiza root powder was given three times daily for two weeks. The treatment group was comprised of 15 patients; the remaining 18 subjects acted as controls and received placebo. Bilirubin, SGOT, and SGPT values were significantly lower in the treatment group, and the time required for bilirubin values to drop to 2.5 mg% was 27.4 days in the treatment group versus 75.9 days for the placebo group. The study has shown a biological plausibility of efficacy of Picrorhiza as supported by clinical trial in viral hepatitis, hepatoprotection in animal model and an approach for standardizing extracts based on picroside content28.

Picrorhiza root extracts are widely used in India with no adverse effects having been reported. The [LD.sub.50] of kutkin is greater than 2600 mg/kg in rats with no data available for humans29.

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Picrorhiza kurroa is one of ingredients of Livex Tablet and Ovarin Syrup

Laving (Caryophyllus aromaticus)

Latin Name Syzygium aromaticum, Eugenia aromatica, E. caryophyllata, Caryophyllus aromaticus
Sanskrit Name Lavanga, Devakusum, Devapushpa, Shrisangya
English Name Clove
Common Name Shriprasuunaka, Qaranful, Laung, Kiraambu, Lavangam

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:1

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta

Guna

Laghu, Tikshna

Virya

Sheeta

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Mukhadurghandhanashna, Ruchya, ShoolaprashamanaDipani, Krimighna, Ruktotkleshaka, Vranashodhana


Phytochemistry:

Eugenin, triterpene acids, crategolic acid and steroid glucosides afford antiinflammatory and antiseptic properties to the buds. Eugenol, a major component of the oil, is antibacterial. Acetone extract of clove, eugenol and acetyleugenol possess cholagogue activity. The eugenol and acetyleugenol components of the clove oil inhibit arachidonate-, adrenalin- andcollageninduced platelet aggregation.1
The major constituent (up to 20%) is an essential oil, which is characterized by the presence of eugenol (60–95%), eugenol acetate (2–27%), and a- and b-caryophyllene (5–10%). The structures of the major constituents are presented below4.


Pharmacological Actions:

It is aromatic, digestive, carminative, stomachic, appetizer, antiemetic, stimulant, antiinflammatory, aphrodisiac, rejuvenating, antioxidant, antispasmodic, antibacterial and antiseptic.1,2


Medicinal Use:

It is useful in flatulence, colic, various forms of gastric irritability, dyspepsia, anorexia, hyperacidity and vomiting.1,2
It is useful in the treatment of dyspepsia, fevers and morning sickness.3
Oil is employed as a local analgesic for hypersensitive dentlines and carious cavaties. It is used in inflammatory changes of oral and pharyngeal mucosa and for topical anesthesia.1.(German Commission E.) It is useful in odontalgia, dental caries and toothache.2
It has growth inhibitory activity against oral pathogens5, antiseptic6, anti-bacterial6, anti-fungal6, anti-viral6, spasmolytic6, local anaesthetic6, countering pyorrhoea, toothache7


Clinical / experimental study:

A petroleum ether or ethylene chloride extract of the flower buds exhibited strong antioxidant activity in vitro at a concentration of 0.1%. A methanol extract of the flower buds inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by carbon tetrachloride, ADP plus arachidonic acid, and ADP plus NADPH (IC50 1.7, 2.6 and 6.4mg/ml, respectively). The antioxidant activity of eugenol has been demonstrated in a wide range of in vitro systems.3

The essential oil had spasmolytic activity in vitro on isolated guinea-pig trachea and intestine. Eugenol and caryophyllene had a narcotic effect after intravenous administration of high doses (200–400mg/kg body weight), and a sedative effect after intragastric administration of low doses (1–100mg/kg body weight) to mice.3
Topical application of a methanol extract of the flower buds (2mg/ear) suppressed ear oedema in mice induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.3
Topical application of eugenol to mice and rats at a dose of 0.2–2.0mg/ear suppressed ear oedema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and ethyl phenylpropiolate4.
Topical application of eugenol inhibited carrageenan induced footpad oedema in rats and reversed passive Arthus reaction in rabbits.3
Syzygium aromaticum (clove) exhibited preferential growth-inhibitory activity against Gram-negative anaerobic periodontal oral pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. By means of bioassay-directed chromatographic fractionation, eight active compounds were isolated from this extract and were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone 8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, biflorin, kaempferol, rhamnocitrin, myricetin, gallic acid, ellagic acid, and oleanolic acid, based on spectroscopic evidence. The antibacterial activity of these pure compounds was determined against Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces viscosus, P. gingivalis, and P. intermedia. The flavones, kaempferol and myricetin, demonstrated potent growth-inhibitory activity against the periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and P. intermedia8.
Used as an antiseptic and antibacterial agent for the oral mucosa. Its established antiseptic activity provides a theoretical basis for efficacy9.
Clove oil and dried clove buds are used in dentistry to relieve dental pain and reduce infection. Based on the evidence available, Commission E has approved cloves for use as a local anaesthetic and antiseptic10.


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Caryophyllus Aromaticus is one of ingredients of Acidinol Syrup, Rhue Oil, Rhue Ointment, Suvarna Hair Vitaliser, and True Dent Toothpaste

Malkangani Beej (Celastrus paniculatus)

Latin Name Celastrus Paniculatus
Sanskrit Name Kanguni, Vanhiruchi, Katumbhi, Jyotishmati, Tejovati, Bahuphala, Peetataila
English Name Staff. Tree, Black-Oil tree, Intellect tree, Climbing-staff plant.
Common Name Malkanguni, Kanguni, Sankhu, Kariganne, Valuluwai

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta

Guna

Snigdha, Sara, Teekshna

Virya

Ushna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Medhya, Vedanasthapana, Kaphasamaka,Vatahara, Arttavajanana, Kusthaghna,Jvaragna.


Phytochemistry:

It contains oil, tannin, alkaloid (alkaloid 3-oxo-4-benzyl-3, 4-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo [2, 1-c] oxazine-6-methylal) and glycoside. The seed oil mainly contains palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid and their glycerol esters mainly α,α' -dipalmitoyl glycerol [Figure 1]. The oil also contains sesquiterpene alkaloids viz. Celapanin, Celapanigin and Celapagin. The oil contains protein, Vitamin C, Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, Iron, Sesqiterpene polyol esters. Seed contains formic, acetic, benzoic, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linolenic, linoleic (omega-6 fatty acids), and linolenic.2-6

 


Pharmacological Actions:

It is nervine and brain tonic, tranquilizing, central muscle relaxant and antiviral, diaphoretic, febrifugal and emetic7.
Seeds are acrid, bitter, appetizer, laxative, emetic, powerful brain tonic8.
Seeds and oil stimulates intellect and sharpen memory9-11.
It has antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antianxiety activity12.


Medicinal Use:

Oil is used for treating mental depression, hysteria and for improving memory; also used for scabies, eczema, wounds, rheumatic pains and paralysis7.
It is useful in improving intelligence and memory13.


Clinical / experimental study:

Possesses the medicinal properties of good tranquillizing effect and hastened the process of learning and memory in experimental animals, oil also showed good result in treating mental depression and gave excellent result in hysteria without any side reaction9.
Oil of Celastrus Paniculates has memory enhancing effect besides antianxienty and lipid lowering properties.10
It stimulates the metabolic conversation of Tryptophan into Niacin. As well as it also improves the formation of co-enzyme, which is important in Bio-Oxidation, vasodilatation & microcirculation thereby increases the peripheral circulation and lower downs the blood cholesterols14.
The aqueous extract of Celastrus paniculatus seed has cognitive-enhancing properties and an antioxidant effect might be involved15.
The Celastrus oil, extracted from seeds of Celastrus paniculatus exhibited significant anxiolytic activity (serotonergic mechanism underlying the anxiolysis) 16.
Aqueous extracts of Celastrus paniculatus seed protected neuronal cells in part by their free radical scavenging properties, by reducing lipid peroxidation, and also by their ability to induce the antioxidant enzyme catalase. It indicates that it might exert neuroprotective effects against increased oxidative stress resulting from free radical damage that is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases17.
C. paniculatus has both analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities18.
CP has anti-stress, immunomodulatory, cognition-facilitating, anti-inflammatory and antiaging effects, which are useful in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction, epilepsy, insomnia, dyspepsia19.
In the study, the anti-arthritic effect of oral administration of petroleum ether, alcoholic extracts of Celastrus paniculatus seed on Freund’s adjuvant arthritis has been studied in Wistar albino rats. The body weight loss that was found during the arthritic condition was corrected on treatment with petroleum ether, alcoholic extracts of Celastrus paniculatus seed. The swelling of the paw during the secondary lesions was also markedly reduced. Hematological parameters like haemoglobin content, total WBC count, ESR and RBC were also estimated. The results indicated that the seed of Celastrus paniculatus is endowed with antiarthritic activity20.


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Celastrus Paniculatus is one of the ingredients of Rhue Oil, Suvarna Hair Vitaliser and Bravobol Capsule

Nagarmoth (Cyperus rotundus)

Latin Name Cyperus Rotundus
Sanskrit Name Musta, Amoda
English Name Nut Grass
Common Name Bhadramustaa, Naagaramustaka, Korai-kilangu, Naagara-mothaa

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:2

 

Rasa

Katu, Tikta, Kasaya

Guna

Laghu, Ruksa

Virya

Sita

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Pachana, Grahi, Pittakaphasamaka, Trsadahasamaka, Dipana, Stambhana, Visaghna, etc.


Phytochemistry:

It contains essential Beta-sitosterol, triterpenoid and essential oil (0.5–5.9%) from the tubers contains mainly sesquiterpenes11. The tuber is rich in Cu, Fe, Mg and Ni.1


Pharmacological Actions:

It is anti-inflammatory, stimulant, digestive, carminative, stomachic, astringent, analgesic and antimicrobial1, 2.


Medicinal Use:

It is useful in disorders of stomach, irritation of bowels and inflammations2. Used for intestinal problems, indigestion, sprue, diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting and fever.1 It is useful in anorexia, dyspepsia, flatulence, colic, vomiting and ulcers.3


Clinical / experimental study:

Presence of eudalne group of sesquiterpenic compounds of sesquiterpene alcohol, isocyperol is said to play an important role in lipid metabolism.1 A clinical study was made on 66 patients of peptic ulcer and 39 patients of chronic gastritis. 65 patients were treated with herbal decoction in which Cyperus Rotundus is one of the ingredients and 40 patients with Gastropine as control group. It was found more effective as compared to Gastropine. It was also better in improving the function of vegetative nervous system and small intestine absorption.3 In a clinical trial 138 cases of intestinal metaplasia and 104 cases of atypical hyperplasia of gastric mucosa of chronic gastritis were treated with a herbal medicine in with Cyperus Rotundus is one of the ingredients. The result demonstrated marked therapeutic effects after 2-4 months of administration with no side effects.3


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Padmak (Prunus cerasoids)

Latin Name Prunus serotina, Prunus virginiana, Prunus cerasoides, P. puddum
Sanskrit Name Padmaka, Padmagandhi
English Name Wild Himalayan Cherry, Bird Cheery
Common Name Padmaadyaa, Padmaakha, Padmakaashtha

Phytochemistry:

Amygdalin (acted upon by water yields hydrocyanic acid, oil of bitter almond, and glucose); emulsin (destroyed by heating), and tannic acid1. The plant contains a flavone glucoside, puddumin-A. The root bark contains beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, ursolic acid, prunetinoside, glucogenkwanin and neosakuranin. Seeds contain flavonoid glycosides2.


Pharmacological Actions:

Wild cherry is an excellent sedative and tonic1.


Medicinal use:

It is useful in quieting irritation of the mucosa, terminal nerves, and lessening violent cardiac action dependent upon weakness and in convalescence from fevers and inflammations1.


Clinical / experimental study:

Recently, Acuña et al. showed that methanol extracts of the fruit had antioxidant capacity3. P. Virginiana samples exhibited potential to inhibit aldose reductase, reduce the expression of both IL-1 and COX-2, and alter energy expenditure. The nonpolar fraction of P. Virginiana strongly inhibited aldose reductase (73% inhibition). Both the crude extract and polar fractions strongly inhibited IL-1 expression (78 and 74%, respectively), and these two samples and the ethyl acetate fraction minimally inhibited COX-2 expression (47, 43, and 24% respectively). Additionally, both the polar and nonpolar fractions demonstrated some capacity to modulate energy expenditure. These results indicate that compounds from P. Virginiana have the potential to reduce the development of diabetic microvascular complications and are strong inhibitors of inflammation. These results indicate that compounds from P. Virginiana have the potential to reduce the development of diabetic microvascular complications and are strong inhibitors of inflammation4.


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Prunus cerasoides is one the ingredients of Rhue capsule

Raisan (Pluchea lanceolata)

Latin Name Pluchea lanceolata
Sanskrit Name Rasna, Suvaha, Sugandha, Yukta
English Name -
Common Name Rayasan, Rasna, Dumme-Rasna, Reshae, Tamil, Sanna Rashtramu


Ayurvedic Properties and Action:

 

Rasa

Tikta

Guna

Guru

Virya

Usna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Amapacana, Kaphavatahara


Phytochemistry:

Thestem and leaves containmoretenol, moretenol acetate, neolupenol, octacosanoic, hexacosanoic and tetracosanoic acid, tetracosanol, hexaco sanol, triacontanol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside2.


Pharmacological Actions:

It is smooth muscles relaxants, antiinflammatory and antioedema2.
It is antipyretic, laxative, nervine tonic, anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, and analgesic4.


Medicinal Use:

It is used to prevent the swelling of joints in arthritis, inflammations, rheumatism, bronchitis, cough, psoriasis, piles and neurological diseases4.


Clinical / experimental study:

PRASAD et al. found pluchine to have anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic activity in experimental animals (albino rats) with inflammation produced by both immunological and non-immunological methods. Pluehine was found not only to suppress the acute inflammation induced by carrageenin, histamine and formaldehyde in comparison with betamethasone, a known anti-inflammatory agent, but also effectively to suppress both primary and secondary phases of adjuvant arthritis (induced by a suspension of dead tubercle bacilli, human DT strain, in liquid paraffin) like metamethasone. Pluchine significantly suppressed acute sensitivity reaction produced by purified tuberculin, and was less toxic than betamethasone in albino rats. These interesting properties of pluchine or betaine hydrochloride can account for the use of the drug, Pluchea lanceolata, for the treatment of rheumatism in clinical cases in the Ayurvedic system of medicine5,6.

The ethanolic extract of Pluchea lanceolata exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity, which was further localized in the hexane fraction, from which ψPS-taraxasterol acetate was isolated which proved to be one of the active constituents7.

The plant contains phytoestrogens in the form of stigmasterol and beta-sitostero12,8.


Reference:

For information of reference, kindly contact on marketing@banlab.com



It is one of the ingredients of Ovarin Syrup, Viton'99' Syrup and Bravobol Syrup

Sarsav Oil (Brassica campestris)

Latin Name Brassica campestris, Sinapis alba, Brassica nigra, Brassica juncea
Sanskrit Name Katusneha, Siddhartha, Katutaila
English Name Indian mustard, Mustard, Turnip Rape
Common Name Amla, Dhatri, Ambala, Aonla, Nellikayi, Bela nelli, pottadenollikayi, Amli, Avalkathi, Ainla, Aula, Amlaj

Ayurvedic Properties and Action:13

 

Rasa

Madhura, Tikta, Katu

Guna

Tiksna, Snigdha, Laghu

Virya

Ushna

Vipaka

Katu

Karma

Dipana, Garbhasayottejaka, Kaphara, Krmighna, Lekhana, Mutrajanana, Snehana, Tvacya, Vatahara, Vedanasthapana, Vidahi


Phytochemistry:

The seeds contain glycosinolates. The concentration of the major glucosinolate, gluco-napin, varies from 0.64 to 1.8 % in the oil-free meal of Indian brassicas. The glucosinolates in rapeseed meal split upon enzymatic hydrolysis to produce glucose, potassium, hydrogen sulphate and a sulphurcontaining compound.1

Phytoalexins: Phytoalexins are involved with plant defense mechanisms such as activity against bacteria and fungi. Sinalexin and sinalbins A and B have been isolated from S. alba5. Sterols and steryl esters: The free and esterified sterols in Brassica and Sinapis species primarily contain sitosterol and campesterol. The seed oils from the Brassica species also contain small amounts of δ 5 -avenasterol and δ 7 –avenasterol6.

Flavonoids: Flavonoids assist in plant defense mechanisms and play an important role in plant-microbe interactions. Apigenin has been isolated from the roots and shoots of B. alba. The following flavonoids also have been isolated from the roots and shoots of B. alba : 3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxy-4'-methoxyl, 2'-3'-4'-5'-6'-pentahydroxyl chalcone, and 3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxyl flavone7.

Carbohydrates (mucilage): Crude mucilage from S. alba was 5% of the total seed weight. Analysis of the components in the crude mucilage revealed 80% to 94% carbohydrates, 1.7% to 15% ash, and 2.2 to 4.4% protein. The ratio of carbohydrates included 22% to 35% glucose, 11% to 15% galactose, and smaller amounts of mannose, rhamnose, arabinose, and xylose8.

Glucosinolates: The flavor of mustard seeds is derived from glucosinolates, which are thiocyanate glycosides. Sinalbin is responsible for the flavor of white mustard seed; sinigrin is responsible for the sharper taste associated with black and brown mustard seeds4.

Volatile oils: Volatile mustard oil is derived from steam distillation or by expression. The fixed oil does not contribute to the pungency of the mustard, and ground mustard does not have a pungent aroma. The pungency is produced by glucosinolates, which are hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase (a thioglucoside glucohydrolase) to the flavor active mustard oil isothiocyanates. Sinalbin primarily yields the nonvolatile 4-hydroxybenzyl isothiocyanate while sinigrin yields the volatile allyl isothiocyanate, which are responsible for the pungent aroma. Depending on the variety of mustard, the yield of allyl isothiocyanate is approximately 1%. Brassica species produce large quantities of isothiocyanates; more than 50 isothiocyanates have been reported as glucosinolate hydrolysis products4,9,11


Pharmacological Actions:

It has rubefacient and counter irritant properties.1,2


Medicinal use:

It is useful in rheumatic pains (increases flow of blood to a specific area) 1.
It is useful in skin diseases2. It is useful in Bodyache, Piles, Pyorrhoea, Itching, Urticaria, Diseases of skin, Diseases of eyes, Disease of head, Leucoderma, Skin disease and Ulcer13.


Clinical / experimental study:

It has emollient and potential antioxidant properties for skin3.

Because of its topical irritant effects, mustard has been used as a rubefacient and irritant; mustard plasters are prepared by mixing mustard with flour or other material to make a paste for topical application. Allyl isothiocyanate has antimicrobial and antifungal activity, which helps provide resistance against pathogens of economic importance11.

Aqueous extracts of mustard at 300 mcg/mL inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by FeSO4 -ascorbate on human erythrocyte membranes. The aqueous extracts of mustard also inhibited formation of diene, triene, and tetraene conjugates in human erythrocyte membranes12.


Reference:

For information of reference, kindly contact on marketing@banlab.com



Brassica campestris is one of the ingredients of Rhue oil, and Dermafex oil